The term cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). It explains manifold phenomena and aids the design and use of technologies and practice related to them. Revisiting the Need for a Third-Order Cybernetics", "On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type, by Alfred Russel Wallace", "Big Data, Algorithmic Regulation, and the History of the Cybersyn Project in Chile, 1971–1973", "CYSP I, the first cybernetic sculpture of art's history", "Cybernetics and Art: Cultural Convergence in the 1960s", "From Goal-Oriented to Constraint-Oriented Design: The Cybernetic Intersection of Design Theory and Systems Theory", An Afternoon with Cedric Price no. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 3-195. In 1950, Wiener popularized the social implications of cybernetics, drawing analogies between automatic systems (such as a regulated steam engine) and human institutions in his best-selling The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (Houghton-Mifflin). The feedback loop communicates this process. In his water clocks, water flowed from a source such as a holding tank into a reservoir, then from the reservoir to the mechanisms of the clock. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaption, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy and interconnectivity. Kathleen D. Vohs, Roy F. Baumeister, in Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, 2004. Forrester later applied these ideas to social organizations, such as corporations and cities, and he became an original organizer of the MIT School of Industrial Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. What is Cybernetics? Resonance core X Events in time. "—, "The art and science of manipulating defensible metaphors" (with relevance to constructivist epistemology. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that required no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Finally, Hayek also considers Adam Smith's idea of the invisible hand as an anticipation of the operation of the feedback mechanism in cybernetics. "—, "The science and art of the understanding of understanding. Ashby, W. R. (1956). During this stay in France, Wiener received the offer to write a manuscript on the unifying character of this part of applied mathematics, which is found in the study of Brownian motion and in telecommunication engineering. Affect Control Theory explains role behavior, emotions, and labeling theory in terms of homeostatic maintenance of sentiments associated with cultural categories. Practical implications: Cybernetic psychology stands as an ethical choice for therapy. Cybernetic theory views an individual as a feedback system which generates its activities in order to detect and control specific stimulus characteristics of the environment. The concept that the same properties of genetic reproduction applied to social memes, living cells, and even computer viruses is further proof of the somewhat surprising universality of cybernetic study. Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. "—, "The art of securing efficient operation [lit. Boyd Davis, S., & Gristwood, S. (2016). Dr Maltz observed the impact of a strong self-image and … Walter was one of the first to build autonomous robots as an aid to the study of animal behaviour. guide the work carried out by the system. This provides an epistemological foundation of science, by viewing it as observer-dependent. It course corrects. Eden Medina, "Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile." Cybernetics studies systems of control as a concept, attempting to discover the basic principles underlying such things as, Nicolas Schöffer's CYSP I (1956) was perhaps the first artwork to explicitly employ cybernetic principles (CYSP is an acronym that joins the first two letters of the words "CYbernetic" and "SPatiodynamic"). If there is mechanism, predictability results (see, History and Philosophy of the Systems Sciences: The Road Toward Uncertainty). "—, "The study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves. Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory and purposive systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.The core concept of the discipline is circular causality or feedback—that is, where the outcomes of actions are taken as inputs for further action. 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