[83] Still, the author uses the terms "Word of God" and "Lamb of God" for Jesus Christ, possibly indicating that the author had a common theological background with the author of John. Similar Items. The earliest uses of John in the Johannine community [clarification needed] and the wider world are not fully known to the modern scholar, but hypotheses can be made about the use of John from different ancient sources in antiquity. [9], In the case of Revelation, many modern scholars agree that it was written by a separate author, John of Patmos, c. 95 with some parts possibly dating to Nero's reign in the early 60s. The debate focuses mainly on the identity of the author(s), as well as the date and location of authorship of these writings. Koester rejects the reference of Ignatius of Antioch as referring to the Gospel and cites Irenaeus as the first to use it. A summary of proposed candidates is as follows: The Gospel of John is considered to be the last of the four canonical Gospels to be written. [11][12], The earliest testimony to the author was that of Papias, preserved in fragmentary quotes in Eusebius's history of the Church. The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series) 20,10€ 4: The Gnostic Gospels: 11,50€ 5: Why Religion? [76] Donald Guthrie wrote that the evidence of the Church Fathers supports the identification of the author as John the Apostle. Life’s Washing in Love to Maintain Fellowship: 15. Jetzt verfügbar bei AbeBooks.de - ISBN: 9780802871701 - Paperback - Eerdmans - 2015 - Zustand: New - Paperback. An unknown author - some scholars have concluded that, since the Fourth Gospel is anonymous, none of the proposed candidates are plausible (there is no reason to assume he was actually named 'John'), and that because no new evidence is likely to emerge, the real author will remain unknown and unnamed. [52] In particular, Chapter 21 is very stylistically different from the main body of the Gospel, and is thought to be a later addition (known as the appendix). The Pharisees appear to be the first to question John’s credentials and calling. The Pool of Siloam was such a bath. Kenneth Gentry contends for an earlier date, 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero or shortly thereafter. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444318937.ch20. Finden Sie hilfreiche Kundenrezensionen und Rezensionsbewertungen für The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series) auf Amazon.de. Chapter 5The Christological Appropriation of Zeal in John’s Use of Psalm 69. In the quote below Irenaeus argues against the gnostic heresy from his book Against Heresies: For, summing up his statements respecting the Word previously mentioned by him, he further declares, "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us." The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved (Greek: ὁ μαθητὴς ὃν ἠγάπα ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ho mathētēs hon ēgapā ho Iēsous) or, in John 20:2, the disciple beloved of Jesus (Greek: ὃν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, hon ephilei ho Iēsous) is used six times in the Gospel of John,[44] but in no other New Testament accounts of Jesus. : A Personal Story (English Edition) CelinaTex Montana Bademantel mit Kapuze XXL Bordeaux Baumwolle Morgenmantel Frottee Damen Herren Saunamantel Bademantel Montana aus kuschel weicher Frottee Baumwolle, flauschig … He claimed that the many contrasts in the Gospel, between light and darkness, truth and lies, above and below, and so on, show a tendency toward dualism, explained by the Gnostic roots of the work. I believe the Johannine authors intended their works for “broader dissemination in Christian circles… from the outset” through “further, secondary distribution” beyond an initial audience (Gamble 1995). The Johannine Epistles. [citation needed], Rudolf Bultmann took a different approach to the work. [2][4] Various objections to John the Apostle's authorship have been raised: A minority of scholars, mostly Anglo-American ones, continue to support John the Apostle as the author of the Fourth Gospel. Citing Literature. Many suggested further that John the Baptist himself belonged to an Essene community, and if John the Apostle had previously been a disciple of the Baptist, he would have been affected by that teaching. He noted similarities with the Pauline corpus, but attributed this to a common Hellenistic background. Most scholars conclude that the apostle John, son of Zebedee, wrote none of the Johannine works, including the Gospel of John (that is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Fourth Gospel' in order to dissociate John from it). An Outline of the Gospel of John: Form and Content. Scholars have debated the authorship of Johannine literature since at least the third century, but especially since the Enlightenment. [25], Several church fathers of the 2nd century never quoted John, but the earliest extant written commentary on any book of the New Testament was that written on John by Heracleon, a disciple of the gnostic Valentinus. [63] The second is that the author of the epistle, "uses the conditional sentence in a variety of rhetorical figures which are unknown to the gospel. One reason for this 'orthodox ambivalence' was gnostic acceptance of the fourth gospel. Wright has said it is like his wife Maggie. "[38], F.C. Johannine Theology is over 400 pages of looking at a highly complex topic. [citation needed] In the English-speaking world, Bultmann has had less impact. [8] That community is traditionally and plausibly either attributed to Ephesus, or Syria, circa AD 90-110. Raymond Brown, in particular, has been the crucial advocate of this position, and his paradigm has become the dominant interpretation of how the Johannine corpus came into being. Prof. Anderson holds a similar position. Life’s Issue and Multiplication : 14. Polycarp of Smyrna quotes from the letters of John, as does Justin Martyr. A. T. "The Priority of John" P 122, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 14:54. [61] At the end of the 19th century, scholar Ernest DeWitt Burton was able to write that, "the similarity in style, vocabulary and doctrine to the fourth gospel is, however, so clearly marked that there can be no reasonable doubt that the letter and the gospel are from the same pen. Thus the hypothesis that the Gospel relied on Gnosticism fell out of favor. [citation needed], While evidence regarding the author is slight, some scholars believe this gospel developed from a school or Johannine circle working at the end of the 1st century, possibly in Ephesus. [51] They are loosely associated with the Gospel of John and may result from that gospel's theology. Chapter. [77], According to Epiphanius, one Caius of Rome believed that Cerinthus, a Gnostic, was the author of the Book of Revelation. According to many scholars, he states unequivocally that the apostle is the author of the Gospel. Part 2Johannine Christology in Hellenistic and Jewish Contexts . [78], In the 3rd century, Bishop Dionysius of Alexandria rejected apostolic authorship, but accepted the book's canonicity. More inclusive than many other bibliographies, this volume provides reference to over 1300 individual entries." [1] The debate focuses mainly on the identity of the author(s), as well as the date and location of authorship of these writings. Cross, F. L., ed. Reading Portraits of Christ. He also cited in the epistles a synthesis with the opposing dualist forces of Gnosticism. Discussion Portraits of Christ “Jesus Christ “ –Google Images. : A Personal Story (English Edition) CelinaTex Montana Bademantel mit Kapuze XXL Bordeaux Baumwolle Morgenmantel Frottee Damen Herren Saunamantel Bademantel Montana aus kuschel weicher Frottee Baumwolle, flauschig … Their version of Christian belief and practice may be referred to as "Johannine Christianity". There are differing motifs between the book and the Gospel: use of allegory, symbolism, and similar metaphors, such as "living water", "shepherd", "lamb", and "manna". The Oxford Handbook of Johannine Studies Edited by Judith M. Lieu and Martinus C. de Boer Oxford Handbooks. [28] Reference to the apostle's authorship is found as early as Justin Martyr, in his Dialogue with Trypho. This would account for the knowledge of and access to the Temple which would not have been available to rough fishermen and followers of a disruptive rural preacher from the Galilee, one who was being accused of heresy besides. This accessible guide to the Gospel and Letters of John introduces readers to key issues arising from historical, literary, and theological approaches to the Johannine literature, also discussing the methodological rationale underlying each of these approaches. [45](4:37) Even if the beloved disciple is to be accepted as the author of the Fourth Gospel, however, this still leaves open the question of what the identity of this beloved disciple was. The two works use many of the same characteristic words and phrases, such as light, darkness, life, truth, a new commandment, to be of the truth, to do the truth and only begotten son. JOHANNINE WRITINGS The Johannine Gospel The Gospels were not literal accounts of the ministry of Jesus. [37] He argued that the meaning and nature of Jesus presented in the Gospel of John was very different from that in the Synoptic Gospels, and thus its author could not have been an eyewitness to the events. [61] The two works also bear many stylistic affinities to one another. The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series) : A Personal Story (English Edition) CelinaTex Montana Bademantel mit Kapuze XXL Bordeaux Baumwolle Morgenmantel Frottee Damen Herren Saunamantel Bademantel Montana aus kuschel weicher Frottee Baumwolle, flauschig … Due to the length of the fourth gospel of John, this guide would require twice as much space if that tactic was implemented. It was a network of churches located in Asia Minor responsible for the production of four New Testament writings: the Gospel of John and the three letters known as 1 John, 2 John, and 3 John. And so Irenaeus appears to distinguish John, the author of the fourth gospel, from John the apostle.) Log in Register. [51][failed verification] This hypothetical group of writers has been termed the Johannine community. The Theology of the Gospel of John. "[17] Origen, when asked how John had placed the cleansing of the Temple first rather than last, responded, "John does not always tell the truth literally, he always tells the truth spiritually. The Christology of the Johannine writings by: Culpepper, R. Alan 1946- Published: (2000) Reading John. [citation needed], The resulting revolution in Johannine scholarship was termed the new look by John A. T. Robinson, who coined the phrase in 1957 at Oxford. This accessible guide to the Gospel and Letters of John introduces readers to key issues arising from historical, literary, and theological approaches to the Johannine literature, also discussing the methodological rationale underlying each of these approaches. [31] The Fourth Gospel may also have been written later as it was penned for a smaller group within the Johannine community, and was not circulated widely until a later date. The Johannine Gospel “Christ and Thief on the Cross” Mykola Ge 1893. Johannine Literature and History. [citation needed], Raymond E. Brown, among others, posit a community of writers rather than a single individual that gave final form to the work. Early use of the Johannine works "Saint John on Patmos" by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511. [81], Mainstream scholars conclude that the author did not also write the Gospel of John because of wide differences in eschatology, language, and tone. S. Giversen. 19 of the mentions refer to, Don Barker, "The Dating of New Testament Papyri,", "Revelation, Book of." Pagels, Elaine, The Johannine Gospel in gnostic exegesis: [Rezension] by: Fischer, Karl Martin 1936-1981 Published: (1975) The gnostic Paul: gnostic exegesis of the Pauline letters by: Pagels, Elaine H. 1943- Published: (1975) Annotated Bibliography. It is full of long dialogues, it speaks of “signs” rather than exorcisms or miracles, and its narrative differs at many points from the Synoptics. It was the gnostics, the Marcionites, and the Montanists who first used it and introduced it to the Christian community."[41]. Special Roles. "The Gospel According to St. John" 1954, p 9. The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series) The Gnostic Gospels Why Religion? It must be conceded that taken as a whole (the evidence) points very strongly to the probability that John of the Apocalypse was, in fact, John the apostle." This would indicate that the Gospel was known in Antioch before Ignatius' death (probably 107). According to this paradigm, 1 John was written after the Fourth Gospel to provide a correct interpretation of the Fourth Gospel in order to redeem it from the gnostics, and this is the only reason it got into the canon. Scholars posit such a community to explain the similarities of John to 1, 2 and 3 John as well as the epistles’ witness to a network of churches. An Introduction to Life and Building : 12. The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series) The Gnostic Gospels Why Religion? [note 1] In favor of the historical and eyewitness character of the Gospel, a few passages are cited. The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series) The Gnostic Gospels Why Religion? [51], Irenaeus, in the late second-century, quotes from 1st and 2nd John, and states that he is quoting the Apostle John. Portraits of Christ 92% of John’s Gospel is Unique Shared and Unique Material In the Synoptic Gospels. BY the Johannine writings are meant the Apocalypse and the fourth gospel, as well as the three catholic epistles to which the name of John is traditionally attached. : A Personal Story (English Edition) CelinaTex Montana Bademantel mit Kapuze XXL Bordeaux Baumwolle Morgenmantel Frottee Damen Herren Saunamantel Bademantel Montana aus kuschel weicher Frottee Baumwolle, flauschig … [24] The early Gnostic use is referred to by Irenaeus and Origen in quoted commentary made on John by the Gnostics Ptolemy and Heracleon. The authorship of the Johannine works—the Gospel According to St. John, the three Epistles of John, and the Revelation of St. John the Divine—has been debated by scholars since at least the 2nd century AD. Howard (1943) belong to this group. [20] Justin Martyr is probably the first Church Father to quote John's gospel. [citation needed], The question remains why the anonymously written Fourth Gospel was eventually given the title 'the Gospel of John' (or 'the Gospel according to John'), especially because John, son of Zebedee is never even mentioned in the Fourth Gospel. 6), we note the appearance in Italy-Rome of two representatives of this latter school who especially treasure the Fourth Gospel – namely Ptolemy and Heracleon (Hillolytus Ref. Johannine Theology: The Gospel, the Epistles and the Apocalypse | Paul A. Rainbow | ISBN: 9781783591749 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The Gospel of John is a gospel dramatically different from the Synoptic Gospels. Together, those books reveal how a particular Christian … Lesen Sie ehrliche und unvoreingenommene Rezensionen von unseren Nutzern. [61] There are at least two principal arguments for this view. However, critical scholars have suggested some other possibilities, as it was common at the time to forge documents in someone else's name for credibility. [32] However, claims of authorship that date much later than 100AD have been called into question due to the Rylands Library Papyrus P52, a fragment of the gospel found in Egypt that was probably written around 125AD. Instead, these scholars tended to continue in the investigation of the Hellenistic and Platonistic theories, generally returning to theories closer to the traditional interpretation. [14] Irenaeus was a disciple of Polycarp, thus in the second generation after the apostle. John was drawing large crowds, which in turn drew attention from the religious authorities in the temple. Baur proposed that the Fourth Gospel was solely a work of synthesis of thesis-antithesis according to the Hegelian model—synthesis between the thesis of Judeo-Christianity (represented by Peter) and the antithesis of Gentile Christianity (represented by Paul). [citation needed], The First Epistle of John assumes knowledge of the Gospel of John, and some scholars think that the epistle's author might have been the one who redacted the gospel. The first is that the epistle often uses a demonstrative pronoun at the beginning of a sentence, then a particle or conjunction, followed by an explanation or definition of the demonstrative at the end of the sentence, a stylistic technique which is not used in the gospel. The Fourth Gospel is a highly intellectual account of Jesus' life, and is familiar with Rabbinic traditions of biblical interpretation. Abandonment is due to changing opinion rather "than to any new evidence [...] Werner, Colson, and I have been joined, among others, by I. Howard Marshall and J.A.T. [citation needed], The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Qumran (1946/47–1956) marked a change in Johannine scholarship. The Book of Revelation does not go into several typically Johannine themes, such as light, darkness, truth, love, and "the world" in a negative sense. [39] Bauer's thesis is that "the heretics probably outnumbered the orthodox" in the early Christian world and that heresy and orthodoxy were not as narrowly defined as we now define them. New York: Oxford University Press. Check availability: HBZ Gateway: Published: New York [u.a.] While John drew on an authentic tradition of Jesus' words and deeds, various influences had modified that tradition in the six or seven decades separating Jesus from the evangelist. Dionysius believed that the author was another man also named John, John the Presbyter, teacher of Papias, bishop of Hieropolis. The Gospel and Epistles of John are often overlooked in discussions of New Testament ethics; indeed, it has been asserted that the Fourth Gospel is of only limited value to such discussions--even that John is practically devoid of ethical material. A Literary and Theological Commentary on the fourth Gospel and the Johannine Epistles by: Talbert, Charles H. 1934- Published: (1992) 2 John: Introduction, Argument, and Outline", Eusebius: Church History (Book VII), Chapter 25, Euserbius: Church History (Book III, Chapter 39), Discussion of the view that John the Apostle did not write the book, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Authorship_of_the_Johannine_works&oldid=999309111, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing copy edit from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles with failed verification from January 2021, Articles needing additional references from January 2021, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. I believe the Johannine authors intended their works for “broader dissemination in Christian circles… from the outset” through “further, secondary distribution” beyond an initial audience (Gamble 1995). JOHANNINE WRITINGS The Johannine Gospel The Gospels were not literal accounts of the ministry of Jesus. The Gospel of John and the Historical Jesus. [26], The following table shows the number of times various church fathers cited John compared to the synoptic gospels.[27]. Chapter 2The Quest for the Messiah: an Inquiry Concerning the Formation of the Johannine Christology. [36] Bretschneider called into question the apostolic authorship of the Gospel, and even stated that, on the basis of the author's unsteady grip of topography, the author could not have come from Palestine. Annotated Bibliography. : A Personal Story (English Edition) 11,49€ 6: CelinaTex Montana Bademantel mit Kapuze XXL Bordeaux Baumwolle Morgenmantel Frottee Damen Herren Saunamantel: 36,04€ 7: Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of … With Carson’s commentary and Harris’ exegetical guide, you will be well prepared to begin any new study on John’s gospel. New Testament Introduction. Wide-ranging replies have been made to this analysis. Johannine Theology: The Gospel, the Epistles and the Apocalypse | Paul A. Rainbow | ISBN: 9781783591749 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. By way of example, G.H.C. Still, this guide is updated and immensely useful. Changing Views of Authorship, Context, and Purpose, The Gospel of John and the Historical Jesus, An Outline of the Gospel of John: Form and Content, The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. [54][55] Most scholars, however, consider the Gnosticism question closed. [13], Irenaeus's witness based on Papias represents the tradition in Ephesus, where John the Apostle is reputed to have lived. John is the Gospel that is often the most problematic for people due to its being so different from the others. Thus H. J. Holtzmann hypothesized a dependence of the work on Philo Judaeus; Albert Schweitzer considered the work to be a Hellenized version of Pauline mysticism, while R. Reitzenstein sought the work's origin in Egyptian and Persian mystery religions. McGregor (1928) and W.F. "[62], Given the similarity with the Gospel, the "great majority" (as of 1957) of critical scholars assign the same authorship to the epistle that they assign to the Gospel. In the words of Amos Wilder, the works share "a combination of simplicity and elevation which differs from the flexible discourse of Paul and from the more concrete vocabulary and formal features of the Synoptic Gospels. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Johannine Gospel in Gnostic Exegesis: Heracleon's Commentary on John (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series) The Gnostic Gospels Why Religion? The Theology of the Johannine Gospel as an Imaginary-Narrative Reality by: Tilborg, Sjef van 1939-2003 Published: (1994) ; Cosmological implications of Johannine Christology by: Tilborg, Sjef van 1939-2003 Published: (2005) ; Johannine research by: Nielsen, Helge Kjaer Published: (1999) Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 1. 2005. Johannine Ethics: The Moral World of the Gospel and Epistles of John eBook: Christopher W. Skinner, Sherri Brown: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop [54] According to Gnosticism scholar Pagels, "Qumran fever" that was raised by the discovery of the Scrolls was gradually dying down, with theories of Gnostic influences in the Johannine works beginning to be proposed again, especially in Germany. Among modern analyses of the origin and development of John’s Christology, the socio-religious analysis of Wayne A. Meeks advances one of the most compelling and suggestive theses in recent years, addressing the riddles pertaining to the puzzling presentation of Jesus as a prophet-king like Moses in John 6:14-15. The Johannine Writings examines the meaning and v alue of those bib lical te xts tr adi-tionally attributed to the Apostle John—John’s Gospel, the three Johannine Epistles, and the Revelation of John. Irenaeus says that these persons tried to suppress the teaching about the Holy Spirit in order to put down Montanism, and as a result denied the authorship of the Gospel and its authority. John’s Gospel has a unique way of introducing or re-introducing us to Jesus. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. It examines the historical context, literary forms and theological content of the Gospel and Letters of John, and their application to a range of spiritual and pastoral concerns. The Gospel of Philip and the Gospel of Mary identify Mary Magdalene as the disciple whom Jesus loved, a connection that has been analyzed by Esther de Boer[50] and made notorious in the fictional The Da Vinci Code. Modern-day Bible scholars study the Johannine community for help in understanding interreligious squabbles. The Johannine writings have long been recognised as contributing a vital element to the theology of the New Testament. Of Christianity in the events of Jesus ' baptism vital element to the Gospel and cites Irenaeus as author!, but accepted the book has many early witnesses, and is familiar Rabbinic! Verification ] this hypothetical group of writers has been termed the Johannine literature since at least two principal for. On Gnosticism fell out of favor the following lessons focus on the Cross ” Mykola 1893! ] most scholars, he states unequivocally that the Gospel that is often the most for... On Gnosticism fell out of favor an Introduction to the Gospel of,! [ 58 ] [ failed verification ] this hypothetical group of ancient churches a! Entries. would indicate that the evidence of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Qumran ( 1946/47–1956 marked... Certain of his intuitions antiquity John was drawing large crowds, which in turn drew attention from the Synoptic.... And epistles of John is a ceremonial bath used in ritual cleansing or purification world. 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