The exact mechanism(s) of nickel carcinogenesis is still unknown. It’s often mixed with other metals and used to make various everyday items. 587-602. The mysid Mysidopsis juniae showed a higher sensitivity to Ni than to Artemia sp., with an LC 50 for 96 h of 0.18 mg L −1 (Figuerêdo et al., 2015). Mol. Copper, manganese, zinc, nickel, cadmium, and lead in human foetal tissues. Cell. Toxic values have been … Nriagu, J. O., eds. The strength of the interaction is dependent on the identity of the amino acids present, and the greatest affinity is shown towards histidine residue. Allergy Clin. Exp. Now available as a single solution formula! Appl. The diagnostic testing will include: 1. However, they do not give a good picture of past exposure and they cannot be used for risk assessment as current knowledge is not sufficient to relate nickel concentrations in these indicator media to specific adverse health effects. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Proc. Coupon is still valid! Toxic effects of oral exposure to nickel usually involve the kidneys with some evidence from animal studies showing a possible developmental/reproductive toxicity effect (ATSDR 1988, Goyer 1991). Comparative toxicology of nickel oxide, nickel sulfate hexahydrate, and nickel subsulfide after 12 days of inhalation exposure to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Nickel legislation applies to all items which are intended to come into prolonged and direct contact with the skin. Shilajit is an ancient traditional medicine (Tibetan and Ayurvedic) and has been ascribed a number of pharmacological activities and has been used for ages as a rejuvenator and for treating a number of disease conditions. It is an effective detoxifier of metals and contains over 60 minerals. Nickel is extremely persistent in both water and soil. The data were used in a first phase to populate a SSD and to derive a reasonable worst-case PNEC (RWC-PNEC) for nickel. All tested species were acutely insensitive to Ni with high LC50 values. Dunnick, J. K.; Elwell, M. R.; Radovsky, A. E.; Benson, J. M.; Hahn, F. F.; Nikula, K. J.; Barr, E. B., and Hobbs, C. H. Comparative carcinogenic effects of nickel subsulfide, nickel oxide, or nickel sulfate hexahydrate chronic exposures in the lung. Watt, R.K and Ludden, P.W. 1993. Of greatest concern is potential kidney toxicity that can occur when the body releases its nickel stores for excretion through the kidneys. Values 2.0 ng/mL and higher represent possible environmental or occupational exposure to nickel (Ni). Chlorella and Laminaria japonica are both chelators, moving toxic metals out of the body, and transporters, moving metals from deeper stores to more readily removable areas. ... sulfate, nickel subsulfide, and nickel oxide. About Our Nickel, Urine test. It is only within recent decades that the hazards of exposure to Ni and nickel compounds have come to be recognized. Edoute, Y.; Vanhoutte, P. M.; Rubanyi, G. 1992. In the general population, contributions to the body burden from inhalation of Ni in the air and from drinking water are generally less important than dietary intake and ingestion is considered to be the most important route of exposure. 1998; 2: 208-215. Nickel exposure is commonly evidenced by contact dermatitis. Cancer among nickel refinery workers, recent follow-up in Norway. Cancer and precancerous conditions are confirmed by tissue biopsy. To meet the data requirements for oral systemic toxicity endpoints under the REACH Regulation in Europe, 12 nickel substances underwent bioaccessibility testing in stomach and intestinal fluids. Nickel hypersensitivity also causes asthma, conjunctivitis, inflammatory reactions to nickel-containing prostheses and implants, and systemic reactions after parenteral administration of nickel-contaminated fluids and medications. Website. High nickel alloys workers study update: Final Report. The most toxic of all compounds of Ni that are encountered in industrial operations is nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Crit. Sensitivity to nickel in jewelry, watchbands, keys and other common metal objects can be a pain. Some of the metals that nickel can be alloyed with are iron, copper, chromium, and zinc. Cilantro works well with alga to chelate, or bind up toxic metals. This urine test monitors exposure to nickel for toxicity. © 2017-2021 Dr. James Odell, ND, OMD, L.Ac. 105: 437-443. Dunnick, J. K.; Benson, J. M.; Hobbs, C. H.; Hahn, F. F.; Cheng, Y. S.; Eidson, A. F. 1988. Testing for Nickel Toxicity Urine and serum nickel concentrations may be used as biological indicators of occupational, environmental and iatrogenic exposures to Ni compounds. When investigating possible nickel toxicity, we first perform a hair mineral analysis. Inhaled Ni, especially nickel carbonyl, is a respiratory carcinogen, producing squamous cell carcinomas. 12: 584594. Suggested Citation:"Nickel Toxicity. This means they can recirculate to deposit elsewhere in the body. Individuals with allergic contact dermatitis will have a red rash. Med. Young R.A. 1995. Both nickel sulfide and sulfate can disrupt immune function by depressing natural killer cell and CD4 lymphocyte populations in blood. Nickel, hands and hip prostheses. Potential effects of environmental parameters (e.g., temperature) on Ni toxicity should be investigated. Costa, M, Simmons-Hansen, J, Bedrossian, C.W.M., Bonura, J, and Caprioli, R.M. 89-09. It is known, however, that exposure to nickel compounds can have adverse effects on human health. The median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were determined as 2520 (95% confidence interval: 2210, 2860) and 426 (351, 515) μg Ni L−1 for the freshwater gastropods Pomacea lineata (48 h) and Sulcospira hainanensis (96 h), respectively, while 96 h LC50s of 4300 (3610, 5090), 18,200 (6470, 51,200), 62,400 (56,800, 68,500), and 71,700 (68,200, 75,400) μg Ni L−1 were derived for the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, the gastropod Monodonta labio, juvenile and adult of the marine fish Oryzias melastigma, respectively. 1981; 41: 2868-2876. "National Research Council. Burrows, D.; Creswell, S.; Merritt, J. D. 1981. Learn how it happens and whether home detox kits live up to the hype. Administer oral reduced L-glutathione at 5 to 10 mg per KG of body weight daily. Nickel concentrations in serum mainly reflect recent exposure because of the short biological half-time in this compartment. Several proteins with high affinity to nickel have been identified in recent years. Instruct patient to drink adequate amounts of pure water (Adult’s urine volume should be about 2 liters per day). Disulfiram is another nickel-chelating agent that has been used in nickel dermatitis and also in the case of nickel carbonyl poisoning. Nickel (Ni) is a widely distributed metal in the environment and an important pollutant due to its widespread industrial applications. NoNickel’s Nickel Alert® was introduced in 2003 by parent company Athena Allergy, as the first commercially available nickel test kit. Sunderman Jr. Sunderman, F.W Jr., Hopfer, S.M, and Sweeney, K.R. 122, 2004. In addition to the lung and nasal sinus cancers, cancers of the larynx, kidney, prostate, stomach, colon, bladder, buccal cavity, and pharynx have also been reported in excess of expected numbers in nickel-exposed workers. Toxicity Profiles. Pure nickel is a hard, silvery-white metal, which has properties that make it very desirable for combining with other metals to form mixtures called alloys. Nickel poisoning: II. 55:5251-5256, (1995). Although nickel does not react significantly with DNA, it does interact strongly with proteins. Author information: (1)Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Vascular Physiology and Medicine, Shri B.M. Sunderman, F. W. Efficacy of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (dithiocarb) in acute nickel carbonyl poisoning. 1989; 191: 5-11. JAMA. In terms of growth inhibition, the chronic EC10 for M. labio was 34 (17, 67) μg Ni L−1. AnchorCert Analytical is the leading laboratory for nickel testing in the UK. Nickel.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Home testing and Reproductive toxicity - Nickel, diagnostic tests, self assessment, and other tools and products in relation to Reproductive toxicity - Nickel. Nickel biochemistry. Supplement Alpha Lipoic Acid at 250 mg twice daily. 15: 476487. If you have any healthcare-related concerns, please call or see your physician or other qualified healthcare provider. In: F.W. Contains 1% dimethylglyoxime and 10% ammonium hydroxide. Nickel salts at low concentrations can also suppress the natural oxidant cascade following the respiratory burst in phagocytes; hydrogen peroxide formation is reduced, and the anti-microbial oxidant defense system of leukocytes is thus weakened. Potential effects of environmental parameters (e.g., temperature) on Ni toxicity should be investigated. Tobacco and tobacco smoke - cigarettes - are also a source of bioavailable Ni (nickel carbonyl); one cigarette may contain 2 to 6 micrograms of nickel - of which up to 20% is inhaled in the smoke. This leaves an unknown margin of uncertainty in the risk assessment in the tropics. Immunol. 1 Nickel exposure may also affect pulmonary tissues, as seen by x-ray. Curr. Casey, C. E.; Robinson, M. F. 1978. Identify the source (s) of nickel in the individual’s environment and remove them or remove the individual from the sources. This then causes deregulation of metabolic and immunologic functions and potentiate carcinogenesis. p. 19. The issue with cilantro taken alone is that although it chelates metals, it does not remove them in the urine. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Please read our guidelines as an indication of which produc Studies on patients suffering from acute exposure to vapors of nickel carbonyl. The primary ones used for toxic metal excess are Chlorella vulgaris, a green microalga, and Laminaria japonica, a brown alga. The best way to find out if you have toxic levels of nickel and or if you’re at risk from nickel related disease is by a hair mineral analysis, this simple home test shows if you are toxic and guidance can be given to how to detoxify the nickel in your situation as everyone is different. Appl. J. Nutr. Biological transport of nickel. Patch Testing 3. nickels are comprised of only 25% nickel; they are actually 75% copper. Toxic Ni concentrations are greater or equal to 10 ng/mL. Keep known metal samples with the test papers for this purpose. Toxicol. Administer 1000 to 2000 mg of Laminaria japonica concentrate (Modifilan) daily and 1000 to 2000 mg of chlorella. The following may serve as a basic guideline for detoxification of excess Ni from chronic exposure. In: Book of Abstracts; Fifth International Conference on Nickel Biochemistry Toxicology and Ecologic Issues; September; Sudbury, Canada. J. Other tests may vary as per symptoms In evaluating individuals who have been exposed to nickel carbonyl, urine nickel levels greater than 100 mcg/L indicate moderate exposure, whereas levels greater than 500 ug/L indicate severe exposure. Toxicity summary for nickel and nickel compounds. Biol. This site is NOT intended to be a substitute for a healthcare provider’s consultation: NEVER DISREGARD MEDICAL ADVICE OR DELAY IN SEEKING IT BECAUSE OF SOMETHING YOU HAVE SEEN ON THIS SITE. 50: 145156. Oxford University Press, Oxford; 1984: 339-365. • All tested species were acutely insensitive to Ni with high LC 50 values.. T. japonicus and M. labio are the two most sensitive species among all tested species.. 2 In addition, nickel toxicity has been linked with central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Thus, a misdirecting or uncoupling of our normal immune surveillance for cancer, while compensating with an over-escalation of an immune response that can produce hypersensitivity and perhaps even auto-immunity, essentially describes the immunopathology of nickel poisoning. Andersen, A. Serum albumin, l-histidine and α2-macroglobulin have been identified as the main binding partners of nickel in blood serum. This study represents an important addition of high-quality toxicity data to the tropical Ni toxicity database which can be used for future ecological risk assessment of Ni and derivation of its water quality guidelines in tropical regions. 1954; 155: 889-894. There must be containers of both the uncontaminated (clean) water (called a control) and the pollutant-treated water; a bare minimum is five containers of each. In order to fill this data gap, this study was designed to conduct standard toxicity tests on Ni with two freshwater species (acute tests) and three marine species (acute and chronic tests) originated from tropical Hong Kong. All tests were carried out using measured concentrations of Ni with control mortality below 15%. The newly generated toxicity data are useful for future ERA and WQGs of Ni. Those with underlying kidney disease may not be able to undergo aggressive nickel detoxification therapy. Generally, daily oral intakes of nickel are extremely variable and may range from negligible amounts tp up to 900 micrograms. Redmond, C. K.; Arena, V. C.; Costantino, J. P.; Trauth, J. M.; Bass, G.; LeGasse, A. × Nickel can displace copper and zinc at enzyme-activator sites and thereby abnormally up- or down-regulate enzymatic processes. Documented IV chelation therapy for nickel poisoning (for the treatment of persons exposed to nickel carbonyl) is sodium diethylcarbodithioate (DDTC). Epidemiological investigations and experimental studies have demonstrated that Ni metal dusts and some nickel compounds are extremely potent carcinogens after inhalation, but also that the carcinogenic risk is limited to conditions of occupational exposure Hence, probably the greatest danger from chronic Ni exposure is lung, nasal, or larynx cancers, and gradual poisoning from accidental or chronic low-level exposure, the risk of which is greatest for those living near metal smelting plants, solid waste incinerators, or old nickel refineries. Coogan, T.P, Latta, D.M, Snow, E.T, and Costa, M. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel compounds. POISINDEX System, Thomson MICROMEDEX Health Care Series (monograph on CD-ROM), Vol. Toxicol. Durham, NC: Nickel Producers Environmental Research Association; NiPERA Contract No. Environmental sources of lower levels of Ni include tobacco, dental or orthopaedic implants, stainless steel kitchen utensils and inexpensive jewelry. Nickel absorption and kinetics in human volunteers. 1 Nickel is a component of many alloys; it is often used in metal plating and in the production of numerous electrical devices and in electronics. Soc. Normal Ni values are based on a Mayo Clinic study using healthy volunteers. Cancer Res. A. Human exposure to Ni occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion. Sunderman, F.W and Kincaid, J.F. Hence, taken with algas, metals are more effectively eliminated in the urine. Due to unique physical and chemical properties, metallic nickel and its various compounds are widely used in modern industry. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of Ni were conducted to fill the data gaps. Enough for approximately 100 -150 tests depending on quantity used per test. Regarding nickel, almost no reliable studies are available assessing nickel toxicity to Artemia sp. inadvertent formation whenever carbon monoxide comes into contact with an active form of nickel. Fund. (Ed.) Toxicity Profiles. It has been suggested that solubility and removal rates of the various Ni compounds may be directly related to their relative carcinogenic potential in the respiratory tract. Rev. Nickel detoxification is like detoxification for. Nickel induces metallothionein synthesis in liver cells causing a dysfunction in arginase and carboxylase activities. Before initiating a detoxification program, a CBC with chemistry, including a thyroid panel with lipids should be performed. 1975. The bioinorganic chemistry of nickel. Hazards from exposure may arise from a variety of operations. Nickel toxicity has been linked with central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. It is important to purchase the highest grade of shilajit. Phagocytosis, cellular distribution, and carcinogenic activity of particulate nickel compounds in tissue culture. Toxicity summary for nickel and nickel compounds. Nickel is a silver-colored metal found naturally in the environment. However, they do not give a good picture of past exposure and they cannot be used for risk assessment as current knowledge is not sufficient to relate nickel concentrations in these indicator media to specific adverse health effects. The ability of nickel ions to interact with a number of proteins raises the possibility that nickel may significantly change intracellular homeostasis by altering protein functions and producing stress similar to unfolded protein response. T. japonicus and M. labio are the two most sensitive species among all tested species. Water quality guidelines and ecological risk assessment of chemical substances like nickel (Ni) in tropical regions such as South East Asia and Melanesia are often based on temperate information as a result of fewer Ni ecotoxicity data available for tropical species. . A review on pre-clinical testing by Parasuraman further explains the animal models and tests used for regulatory toxicity testing. J. Dermatol. The Ni excretion in urine may reflect more extended exposure and is more practical than serum. Assess whole blood cell element analysis to determine mineral nutrient deficiency and supplement appropriately. 25, Nickel and Human Health: Current Perspectives, New York, 1992, pp. The form of Ni to which workers are exposed differs in the various industries in which Ni is used and occurs through inhalation or dermal contact (inhalation is the primary route of exposure), with ingestion taking place where there are poor industrial hygiene practices. Inhaled Ni is selectively concentrated in the lung, followed by heart, diaphragm, brain, and spinal cord tissues. Sulfur-bearing amino acids, certain algae (laminaria, fucus, chlorella), selenium, vitamin C, manganese, zinc and copper are antagonistic for reuptake and retention of Ni. Significant amounts of Ni in different forms may be deposited in the human body through occupational exposure and diet over a lifetime. The reason a urine test is so useful and provides meaningful results is that urinary excretion is the major route for the elimination of absorbed nickel (16). Your doctor can usually diagnose nickel allergy based on your skin's appearance, and a recent exposure to items that may contain nickel.If the cause of your rash isn't apparent, however, your doctor may recommend a patch test (contact hypersensitivity allergy test). Despite their name, Opin. Therefore, it is hard to compare results unless with other marine or estuarine species. In addition, whole blood elements to assess the mineral status and a urine creatinine clearance should be performed every 60 days when using synthetic detoxifying agents. In: Nieboer, E., Advances in Environmental Sciences and Technology, Vol. According to procedures based on BS EN 1811:2011, BS EN 12472 and BS EN 16128:2011. Heavy metal poisoning is rare, but it can have lasting effects on your health. The use of DDTC was considered beneficial in a large number of anecdotal reports of human poisoning, although there are few adequately controlled human trials to support its effectiveness and lack of toxicity. Nickel aerosols are removed from the atmosphere primarily by wet and dry deposition The average residence time for nickel in the atmosphere is 7 days. The testing process for determining toxicity in marine environments is detailed, rigorous, and time consuming. 1982; 69: 55-59. Primary concept of nickel toxicity - an overview. Nickel exposure is commonly evidenced by contact dermatitis. Oceans act as the ultimate sink for nickel in the environment. EUROPEAN (REACH) FULL NICKEL RELEASE TEST . Toxicol. When testing objects of unknown metal, start by testing known samples of iron and nickel to see what the reaction should look like and to ensure the test paper still works. After 60 days, laboratory screening should be used to reassess protocol. As the first pre-mixed and pre-measured dmg spot test, it is renowned for its ease of use and accuracy. 39: 639646. Supplement buffered vitamin C (corn free source) at 2000 mg up to 5000 mg daily adjusting to bowel tolerance. Nickel (Ni) is a metallic element that is naturally present in the Earth's crust. Drake, H.L. Adjust dosage to bowel tolerance; may be taken for long periods of time. Dunnick, J. K.; Elwell, M. R.; Benson, J. M.; Hobbs, C. H.; Hahn, F. F.; Haley, P. J.; Cheng, Y. S.; Edison, A. F. 1989. Fund. Nickel is a ubiquitous metal frequently responsible for allergic skin reactions and has been reported to be one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, as reflected by positive dermal patch tests. We conducted acute 48‐ and 96‐h water‐only toxicity tests to evaluate the influence of feeding and test durations on the toxicity of dissolved Ni and Zn to the amphipod; we also used recently refined test methods to conduct chronic Ni and Zn toxicity tests to evaluate the sensitivity of the amphipod (6‐wk exposure) and the mussel (4‐ and 12‐wk exposures). However, due to its hepatotoxicity and possible redistribution of nickel to the brain, its use in both indications is still controversial. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. They are mainly involved in Ni transport, detoxification and excretion. The kidney, in addition to the lung, brain, pancreas, and other tissues is considered a target organ for Ni retention following high levels of Ni exposure. Nickel in the human environment. Human exposure to highly nickel-polluted environments has the potential to produce a variety of pathological effects. As with all detoxification protocols, the type, dose and duration of detoxification agents should always be individually assessed, and administered by a licensed medical practitioner. Administration of arginine and synthetic agents may cause a depletion of essential elements such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, copper and other trace minerals. I'm not sure that you will get much benefit from testing your local soils for nickel, unless you are growing the majority of your own food. The results also indicated that T. japonicus in maturation stage (LC10: 484 (349, 919) μg Ni L−1) was less sensitive than its nauplii stage (LC10: 44 (27, 72) μg Ni L−1). 1995. There are many advantages, including scientific, ethical, and economic ones, for replacing the animal toxicity tests with non … Anke, M, Groppel, B, Kronemann, H, and Grün, M. Nickel: an essential element. ESTABLISHED EXPERTISE . Haley, P. J.; Shopp, G. M.; Benson, J. M.; Cheng, Y. S.; Bice, D. E.; Luster, M. I.; Dunnick, J. K.; Hobbs, C. H. 1990. patch testing with 0.01% nickel as nickel sulfate in petrolatum; however, exposure to 0.03% nickel resulted in dermatitis. No classification for acute oral, inhalation, or dermal toxicity is suggested. The overall evidence from studies of Ni workers suggests that respiratory cancer risks are primarily related to exposure to less soluble forms of nickel (notably sulfidic and oxidic nickel). The 2013-2014 sediment testing program evaluated nickel toxicity to four species in three additional sediments (which also showed broad ranges of sediment parameters), resulting in an SSD with a total of eight EC 10 values. In general, the lung has the tendency to retain significant amounts of Ni independently of the route of exposure. Watch and learn more! Table 3 includes basic parameters previously used in chronic toxicity testing. Do not overdose and check for renal clearance while using GSH. He or she may refer you to an allergy specialist (allergist) or a skin specialist (dermatologist) for this test. Another great method for detecting nickel is to perform a Metals Urine Metal Push Test. Oral LD 50 values for rats range from 67 mg nickel/kg (nickel sulfate hexahydrate) to >9000 mg nickel/kg (nickel powder) (ATSDR 1988). Cancer Res. Since Ni has not been recognized as an essential element in humans, it is not clear how nickel compounds are metabolized. Skin Appearance 2. They are similar to the subchronic tests except that they extend over a longer period of time and involve larger groups of animals. VCH, Weinheim; 1988: 111-139. Modern scientific research has systematically validated a number of properties of shilajit and has proven that shilajit is truly a panacea. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science 9.1 (1979): 1-10. Among them are skin allergies, lung fibrosis, cancer of the respiratory tract and iatrogenic Ni poisoning. A read-across paradigm was developed based on the correlation between gastric bioaccessibility and in vivo acute oral toxicity. Nickel Test Sensitive,Rapid test for detection of nickel release from metallic objects Both work in unison with each other and can remove toxic metals from the body through urinary excretion. Acute and chronic toxicity of nickel on freshwater and marine tropical aquatic organisms, In addition, nickel toxicity causes a transient reduction of cellular glutathione. AnchorCert Analytical is the leading Nickel testing specialist in the UK. (accessed 03.03.2005). It has been difficult to estimate the specific risks associated with individual species of Ni due to mixed exposures within the workplace. 1989; 19: 341-384. Inhalation exposure in occupational settings is a primary route for nickel-induced toxicity and may cause toxic effects in the respiratory tract and immune system. 1999; 56: 604-6. Chem. These include: the preparation of intermediates in organic syntheses, sometimes under extremely high pressures; electroplating operations as a medium for depositing thin layers of metallic nickel in electronic circuits and magnetic tapes; and. Das KK(1), Reddy RC(2), Bagoji IB(3), Das S(4), Bagali S(1), Mullur L(1), Khodnapur JP(1), Biradar MS(5). Chronic toxicity tests determine toxicity from exposure for a substantial portion of a subject's life. The first step in testing for nickel is to obtain an accurate dimethylglyoxime (dmg) spot test. Ragsdale, S.W. Br. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapur, Karnataka, India. Nickel is normally present in human tissues and, under conditions of high exposure, these levels may increase significantly. THE CONTENT ON THIS SITE IS PRESENTED IN SUMMARY FORM, IS GENERAL IN NATURE, AND IS PROVIDED FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY; IT IS NOT ADVICE, NOR SHOULD IT BE TREATED AS SUCH. Young R.A. Check dental restorations and industrial exposure. doi: 10.17226/20096. The following UKAS accredited Nickel testing services are available from our team of specialised experts. We make no representations, nor any warranties, nor assume any liability for the content herein; nor do we endorse any particular product, provider, or service. Delasco's Spot Test for Nickel warns patients of the presence of nickel before they have to suffer. Nickel and Human Health: Current Perspectives: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Nickel Metabolism and Toxicology; September 1988; Helsinki, Finland. Municipal drinking water in the United States generally contains Ni at concentrations less than 10 µg/l. The immunotoxicity of three nickel compounds following 13 week inhalation exposure in the mouse. Therefore, testing for acute dermal toxicity is waived. Over this period of time, long-distance transport is expected to take place. NICKEL Testing. Nickel is a known contact carcinogen and allergen. Exposure to nickel may lead to various adverse health effects, such as nickel allergy, contact dermatitis, and organ system-toxicity. This may result in an impairment of the urea cycle. The exposure to high doses of Ni disturbs established cellular homeostasis via changes of intracellular calcium levels and produces oxidative stress. Mechanisms of nickel-induced coronary vasoconstriction in isolated perfused rat hearts. Eck, P. and Wilson, L., Toxic Metals in Human Health and Disease, Eck Institute of Applied Nutrition and Bioenergetics, Ltd., Phoenix, AZ, 1. Algal cells have a remarkable ability to take up and accumulate heavy metals from their external environment. 587-602. Crystal structure, particle size, and surface area may also be related to carcinogenicity. Website: http://risk.lsd. If the nickel content of your water is important, then I would contact a professional environmental lab to get your water tested ( semi-random hit from Google ), and the same sort of places can test soils as well. It is of interest to note that the metal-binding protein metallothionein does not appear to constitute a major nickel-binding component in different tissues.